Of course Nietzsche’s virtues are neither Christian nor Aristotelian; Nietzsche’s virtues are those of a philosopher, a philosopher of the future.
Nietzsche lists four key virtues of a new philosopher: solitude, insight, courage, and sympathy. The first, solitude, is the most explicit in Nietzsche.
For the virtues to be successfully applied to business, business activity must be viewed as a 'practice' as defined above. Whether or not any business activity qualifies as a practice depends less on the type of activity, and more on the character and motivations of the people engaged in it. The challenge that any organization faces, therefore, is to educate managers as to the desirability of virtue-based behavior.
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12/02/2015 · College students are still children
The role of exemplars is critical for the application of virtue ethics because it is from these individuals that the virtues are disseminated throughout the profession. Thus, in virtue ethics, ethics is something which is through observation of others' behavior. For example, in his article on "Good Works", Michael Pritchard concludes that "beyond discussing codes of ethics, principles of right and wrong, dilemmas ... and moral disaster stories, we need stories of a different sort - " (p. 170, emphasis added). A resurgence in recognition of the critical importance of moral exemplars is supplied by cognitive science in its invocation of "exemplar theory". Alvin Goldman summarizes the theory as follows:
Not in terms of age, but in terms of maturity
In summary, what this overview of virtue-ethics theory makes clear is that an individual, whether finance professional or otherwise, cannot be ethical in a vacuum. The individual must be educated in the virtues by a nurturing community, and by the guidance of exemplars. This approach takes ethics far deeper than merely a credo or code of conduct. Ethics becomes integral to the professional's whole conception of what it is he or she is about. Rather than the opportunist of financial agency theory, the virtuous agent adopts a different notion of substantive rationality: Practical Rationality.