The alternative to hanging was transportation, where convicted criminals were sent to the colonies to serve their sentence.
Any criminal with a sentence of 7 years or longer could be transported. Later in the Victorian Period this was replaced with .
After the 1853 act, only long-term transportation was retained and transportation was finally abolished after the act of 1857, although some were still transported after this date. For more information see the section on
Penal servitude means 'Serving a sentence that is meant to punish the prisoner'. was a term of imprisonment that usually included and was served in this country. This gradually replaced transportation following the 1853 and 1857 Acts.
The sentence for penal servitude could range from 3 years to life; it was for those convicts who would have been transported for less than 14 years. It could also be used as an alternative sentence for those liable to transportation of 14 years or more.
Sentences of 7 years transportation or less were substituted by penal servitude for 4 years; 7 to 10 years transportation by 4 to 10 years; 10 to 15 years by 6 to 8 years' penal servitude; over 15 years' transportation by 6 to 10 years' penal servitude; transportation for life by penal servitude for life.
Therefore records tended to put transportation and penal servitude together. This clumsy system of converting transportation to penal servitude equivalents was theoretically ended by the Act of 1857; subsequently prisoners were sentenced directly to penal servitude if found guilty of offences that formerly warranted transportation.
However, in practice, convicts were still being transported as late as 1867, so there continued to be a hazy overlap between the sentencing of transportation and penal servitude for many years.
In some cases the Bedford Gaol records list both 'penal servitude and transportation' as the sentence. It is likely that prisoners sentenced to 7 years or more, before 1853, were transported but after 1867 served their sentence in English prisons. Between 1853 and 1867, for sentences of 7 years or more, either sentence or elements of both could have been used.
Only by tracing what happened to individuals is it possible to determine where their final sentence was actually served. For examples within the GAOL databases, try searching on Henry Catlin (1843); William Jones (1861); and Walter Pratt (1864).
Evidence from the records held at Fremantle Prison, Western Australia, show that prisoners sentenced to but who were, in fact, transported, could return to England at the end of their sentence.
You can hardly blame the veteran actor for his disenchantment with America’s penal system as his son’s case pretty much epitomizes the futility of sending a person who is addicted to drugs into a bleak and lonely institution where drugs are readily available and treatment is not.In 2010, Cameron Douglas was sentenced to five years in prison for small time drug dealing and possession for personal use.
Direction: Justice and the Modern Penal System
With the support of the Antigone and the Russian Ngo developed the project “Rights in prison. EU-Russia Civil Society Forum and the defence of fundamental rights in the penitentiary system”.
, Italy. Apart from the project partners - Alessio Scandurra from the "" Association (Rome) and Irina Protasova from the NGO "" (Yoshkar-Ola), the events gathered representatives of the civilian oversight commissions from the Republic of Mari-Eland the Tomsk Region and the "For Civil Rights" Committee (Russia) as well as NGOs "A Buon Diritto" and "Forum Droghe" (Italy), and others.
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After the War of 1812, reformers from Boston and New York began a crusade to remove children from jails into . But the larger controversy continued over the purpose of prison — was it for punishment or penitence? In 1821, a disaster occurred in that shocked even the governor into pardoning hardened criminals. After being locked down in solitary, many of the eighty men committed suicide or had mental breakdowns. Auburn reverted to a strict disciplinary approach. The champion of discipline and first national figure in was . founder of the , he spread the Auburn system throughout America's jails and added salvation and Sabbath School to further penitence.
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Aside from gently ribbing his co-star Matt Damon and thanking his estranged wife Catherine Zeta Jones, Douglas gave a shout out to his eldest son, Cameron, who is in currently being held in solitary confinement in a federal penitentiary.“I’m hoping I’ll be able and they’ll allow me to see him soon,” Douglas told the audience before explaining to reporters backstage that he has begun to question the system that is preventing him from even visiting his incarcerated son.