Death Penalty: The Ultimate Denial of Human Rights | NE…

State of Delaware, Department of State, Division of Corporations, Registrationof the Lower Brule Community Development Enterprise, LLC, File Number 4729454;and , Supreme Court of the State ofNew York, Case No. 651492/12, ruling on Motion to Dismiss (denied), Motion DateJuly 29, 2013, ruling date October 22, 2013, by Judge Ellen Bransten; LowerBrule Corporation, “Resolution Duly Adopted by the Lower BruleCorporation Approving and Appointing the Lower Brule Community DevelopmentEnterprise, LLC. Board,” September 9, 2009; and Lower Brule CommunityDevelopment Enterprise, “Resolution to Appoint Gavin Clarkson as BoardMember and Liaison to Appoint Officers, to Establish Bank Accounts, toAuthorize Signators, to Indemnify Clarkson and Ickes, to Authorize Developmentof Offering,” December 20, 2010. Human Rights Watch visited the TribalGovernment offices on April 26, 2013 where LBCDE is supposed to beheadquartered and asked several government employees at random where to find orwhether they knew about LBCDE. None was aware of such an entity.

Letter from the US Department of Interior to Human Rights Watch, September 30,2013.
Photo provided by Flickr

What came with the logs, however, was silt and salt. Southern Mesopotamia practiced irrigated farming, so salination and siltation eventually wrecked Sumer. By the around 2100 BCE, the king made dredging silt from canals a high priority, and his dredging initiative temporarily revived agriculture and made Ur’s port navigable once again, which had already filled with silt. Wheat is more sensitive to saline soil than barley. In 3500 BCE, wheat and barley were grown in equal amounts, but salination began taking its toll. By 3000 BCE, when Sumer became the world’s first literate society, their tablets record Sumer’s decline. By 2500 BCE, wheat amounted to only 15% of the total crop. By 2100 BCE, wheat comprised only 2% of Sumer’s crops. Wheat was not the only casualty. Salt-tolerant barley did better, but crop yields began falling precipitously around 2400 BCE, and a steady decline reached only a third of 2400 BCE yields by 1700 BCE. to lands that had not yet been devastated, Sumer’s population declined by more than half, and famine was a regular visitor as croplands became white with salt.


Death Penalty: The Ultimate Denial of Human Rights | …

US Department of the Interior, Office of the Secretary, Letter to Human RightsWatch, September 30, 2013.
Photo provided by Pexels

After newly exposed forest soils have produced a few crops, the yield will decline due to nutrient depletion. When the croplands receive less precipitation, yields drop. When soils wash away due to erosion, crop yields in those eroded soils will decline. Those effects reduce the EROI and surplus energy of farming those lands. When cropland is abandoned due to aridity, nutrient depletion, and erosion, and lands farther from Rome were conquered, deforested, and farmed, it took more energy to transport those crops to Rome than with farms closer to Rome. That also depressed the EROI and surplus energy. When harbors silted up and needed dredging, or were eventually abandoned and a port was built farther away, that also reduced the EROI and surplus energy of Rome-bound food. When food was used to feed soldiers who traveled increasingly vast distances to conquer and plunder peoples and their lands, those would be lower-EROI ventures than conquests closer to Rome. That dynamic has also been called in academic parlance, but in scientific terms, it is really just sucking the dregs of low-EROI resources after high-EROI energy sources have been depleted. Rome’s decline was really just another resource-depletion dynamic. Humanity’s first one was , and Rome only experienced what , , , , and numerous other early civilizations already suffered. Rome just did it on an unprecedented scale.