The French Revolution of 1789 was ..

The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a state.

Industrial Revolution: the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation

Joseph Stalin: Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)

Leon Trotsky: Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army; he was ousted from the Communist Party by Stalin and eventually assassinated in Mexico (1879-1940)

Louis XVI: king of France from 1774 to 1792; his failure to grant reforms led to the French Revolution; he and his queen (Marie Antoinette) were guillotined (1754-1793)

manifest destiny: the 19th-century doctrine or belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.

Mao Zedong: Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)

Marxism: the political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, later developed by their followers to form the basis for the theory and practice of communism.

Napoleon Bonaparte: French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)

nationalists: a person who advocates political independence for a country.

Nicholas II: the last czar of Russia who was forced to abdicate in 1917 by the Russian Revolution; he and his family were executed by the Bolsheviks (1868-1918)

reform: make changes in something in order to improve it.

reign of terror: a period of remorseless repression or bloodshed, in particular Reign of Terror, the period of the Terror during the French Revolution.

Robespierre: French revolutionary; leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror; was himself executed in a coup d'etat (1758-1794)

Russian Revolution: the coup d'etat by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922

socialism: a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

soviet: an elected local, district, or national council in the former Soviet Union

The Enlightenment: a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.

This first segment runs from the French Revolution of 1789 through the revolutions of 1848

Kerensky served as the second Prime Minister of the Russian Provisional Government until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin in the October Revolution.

assembly line: a series of workers and machines in a factory by which a succession of identical items is progressively assembled.

bastille: a fortress built in Paris in the 14th century and used as a prison in the 17th and 18th centuries; it was destroyed July 14, 1789 at the start of the French Revolution

Bolshevik Party: The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.


1789 at the start of the French Revolution ..

capital punishment or (formerly) slavery.

Alexander Kerensky: Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky was a major political leader before and during the Russian Revolutions of 1917.