Avian respiratory system showing the bronchi located inside the lungs. Dorsobronchi and ventrobronchi branch off of the primary bronchus; parabronchi extend from the dorsobronchi to the ventrobronchi. Light blue arrows indicate the direction of air flow through the parabronchi. The primary bronchus continues through the lung and opens into the abdominal air sac.
Air flow through the avian respiratory system during inspiration (a) and expiration (b).
1 - interclavicular air sac, 2 - cranial thoracic air sac, 3 - caudal thoracic air sac, 4 - abdominal air sac
(From: Reese et al. 2006).
Respiratory System Organs and Their Functions | New …
Comparison of the avian 'unidirectional' respiratory system (a) where gases are exchanged between the lungs and the blood in the parabronchi, and the bidirectional respiratory system of mammals (b) where gas exchange occurs in small dead-end sacs called alveoli (From: West et al. 2007).
Which disorders do we evaluate in this body system
Your respiratory system is vital in keeping you alive. It is a complex system that brings needed oxygen into your body and then take unwanted carbon dioxide out of your body.
3.00 Respiratory System – Adult
The alveolar lungs of mammals (Rhesus monkey; A) and parabronchial lungs of birds (pigeon; ) are subdivided into large
numbers of extremely small alveoli (A, inset) or air capillaries (radiating from the parabronchi; B, inset). The mammalian respiratory
system is partitioned homogeneously, so the functions of ventilation and gas exchange are shared by alveoli and much of the lung volume.
The avian respiratory system is partitioned heterogeneously, so the functions of ventilation and gas exchange are separate in the air sacs
(shaded in gray) and the parabronchial lung, respectively. Air sacs act as bellows to ventilate the tube-like parabronchi (Powell and Hopkins 2004).
Respiratory system - New World Encyclopedia
The avian respiratory system delivers oxygen from the air tothe tissues and also removes carbon dioxide. In addition, therespiratorysystem plays an important role in thermoregulation (maintaining normalbody temperature). The avian respiratory system is different from thatof other vertebrates, with birds having relatively small lungs plusnineair sacs that play an important role in respiration (but are notdirectlyinvolved in the exchange of gases).
Respiratory System | Whitman College
The avian pulmonary system uses "flow-through ventilation," relying on a set of nine flexible air sacs that act like bellows to move air through the almost completely rigid lungs. Air sacs do not take part in the actual oxygen exchange, but do greatly enhance its efficiency and allow for the high metabolic rates found in birds. This system also keeps the volume of air in the lung nearly constant. O'Connor says the presence of an extensive pulmonary air sac system with flow-through ventilation of the lung suggests this group of dinosaurs could have maintained a stable and high metabolism, putting them much closer to a warm-blooded existence. "More and more characteristics that once defined birds--feathers, for example--are now known to have been present in dinosaurs, so, many avian features may really be dinosaurian," said O'Connor. A portion of the air sac actually integrates with the skeleton, forming air pockets in otherwise dense bone. The exact function of this skeletal modification is not completely understood, but one explanation theorizes the skeletal air pockets evolved to lighten the bone structure, allowing dinosaurs to walk upright and birds to fly.