Although affirmative action may have this effect in some cases (Heilman, Simon, & Repper, 1987; Steele, 1990), interview studies and public opinion surveys suggest that such reactions are rare. For instance, a recent Gallup poll asked employed Blacks and employed White women whether they had ever felt that others questioned their abilities because of affirmative action (Roper Center, 1995c). Nearly 90% of respondents said no (which is understandable—after all, White men, who have traditionally benefited from preferential hiring, do not feel hampered by self-doubt or a loss in self-esteem). Indeed, in many cases affirmative action may actually raise the self-esteem of women and minorities by providing them with employment and opportunities for advancement. There is also evidence that affirmative action policies increase job satisfaction and organizational commitment among beneficiaries (Graves & Powell, 1994).
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In light of the Michigan cases any such targeted plan should be carefully tied to any affirmative action plan, mission statement or particular educational need that is the basis for its existence, and such connections should be clearly established in writing. Avoid specific targets and numerical goals, and ensure as much as possible that final decisions on hiring are based primarily on qualifications for the positions, and not on race, national origin or gender. Considering race or sex as one positive factor among many remains both constitutional and acceptable under Title VII as it allows for varied weighting and consideration of a whole range of factors. However, if race or sex were a sole factor, it could be found to violate both Title VII and the Constitution.
Affirmative Action Planning; What is an Affirmative Action Plan
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It must also be recognized that as a federal government contractor, the University must have an Affirmative Action Program that is acceptable to the appropriate federal agencies. This program not only monitors hiring policies to ensure equal employment but also acts as a vehicle for determining any deficiencies in the area of employment. In addition, those subcontractors hired by the University are bound by these same regulations.
Dec 09, 2015 · WASHINGTON -- The U.S
Thomas Jefferson's statement begs more than a few questions, one of which is: "How can we ensure equality to everyone?" Beginning in the late 1960s, the federal government provided an answer to this question in the form of affirmative action.
Is affirmative action racist? – Allan G. Johnson
The University of Dayton is an affirmative action, equal opportunity employer that prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, and veteran status. All University employment policies, practices and procedures are administered in a manner consistent with our Catholic and Marianist identity.
The Affirmative Action Hoax: Steven Farron: …
In pursuance of this policy the University reaffirms its commitment to an Equal Employment and Affirmative Action Program consisting of three basic goals:
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The following essay is in press in the Journal of Social Issues (Journal of Division 9 of the American Psychological Association). Feel free to download, print, cite, circulate, or add web links to the essay, but please include appropriate citation information when doing so. The essay appeared in a 1997 issue of JSI entitled "Affirmative Action: Linking Research, Policy, and Implementation" (Volume 52, Issue 4). For more information about the JSI issue, contact Paula Skedsvold of the American Psychological Society or Tammy Mann of the American Psychological Association.