In proving their points, some English Catholic writers propounded the doctrine of government by the consent of the people. William Allen argued that, while the authority of the state rested on consent and the law of nature, the church was not dependent on the consent of the people, but was based on the law of God. He implied that a government may be overturned if it does not serve the ends for which it was instituted, and particularly if it hinders the people in the attainment of their salvation. It is the church, however, not the people, that is to take the lead in the disciplining and, if need be, the deposition of the ruler. Parsons, in upholding the right of the Spanish Infanta, daughter of Philip II, to the English throne, argued that government is based on consent and that the people have the right to change rulers if necessary. He preferred a monarchical form of government, but there are various forms of monarchy, and the English form is "mixed." Kings of England are not absolute and must respect the functions of council and Parliament; they are bound by the law.
In spite of the tendency to exalt the king's power, Tudor writers, following medieval tradition, recognized that it was subject to limitations. One such limitation was the law of nature, binding on all earthly powers. It was also heldthat in important legislation the king must collaborate with Parliament; he was subject to divine and natural law and to positive law and custom as well. The growing importance of England's Parliament was reflected in political theory. Legislation was coming to be regarded as the joint product of king and Parliament, and the king's power to issue proclamations on his authority alone was seen as a prerogative to be exercised only in emergencies.
The Plodder’s Guide to Westeros’ Rulers – Thunks of Ice …
Much of The Boke named the Gouernour (1531) consists of commonplaces; as a whole it is devoid of originality. Its interest lies in the extent to which it illustrates humanistic influences, in the numerous examples given from classical and sacred history, in Elyot's unhappy reflections on the degeneracy ofhis age, and in the concern it exhibits for the proper training of a new ruling class, which in this case was the gentry. It also has its usefulness as an exposition of ideas which, however timeworn and trite, were widely held and influential. The ideas of hierarchy and order persisted into the reign of Elizabeth. They may be seen in the Mirror for Magistrates, a long poem with prosepassages, written by many hands, which first appeared in 1559 and was frequently reprinted in enlarged editions. It tells stories, mostly from English history in the fifteenth century, about the fall of bad kings and sometimes lesser men. It emphasizes the importance of obedience to rulers and magistrates, and the wickedness of rebellion. It also shows that good rulers obey the law, and that God punishes the tyrant, the ruler who sets his own will in the place of law. Princes and officers rule with God's sanction, and to resist them is to resist God. Even bad rulers are sent by God to punish the people's sins. The doctrine ofnonresistance was also preached, quite literally, in the homilies, sermons prepared by the government to be read in the churches. The Homily on Rebellion of1571 called rebellion the sum of all sins and painted in horrifying terms the complete breakdown of society that supposedly would follow it.
CHRISTIAN ANTISEMITISM: Meieval and Renaissance …
As a symbol of regal power, His Imperial Majesty the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Haile Selassie I, Elect of God, Emperor of Ethiopia, had ruled his ancient realm as a medieval autocrat.
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Protestant writers tended to support the claims of the government in its insistence on the duty of obedience to the monarch. William Tyndale's Obedience of a Christian Man (1528) even comes close to the divine-right theory in this respect. According to Tyndale, he who judges the king judges God; the king is bound by no human laws or rules and shall give account to God only. Like Calvin, the English Protestants accepted the duty to obey even a wicked ruler, unless he commands something against God. Even then, he must not be resisted. He must be suffered as a divine punishment for men's sins. As for his own punishment, he must be left to God. Great stress was laid, especially by the paid propagandists of the government, upon the evil of rebellion.