There were some highly placed Jews in the USA's government. The relatively few Jews saved by America in World War II can partly thank the Jewish Henry Morgenthau, Jr., who was the Secretary of the Treasury, for directing the Treasury Department to investigate why Jews were not getting into America while the death factories were at full production.
Microbial molecules or cytokines can stimulate dendritic cell (DC) maturation, which involves DC migration to lymph nodes and enhanced presentation of Ag to launch T cell responses. Microbial TLR agonists are the most studied inducers of DC maturation, but type I IFN (IFN-I) also promotes DC maturation. In response to TLR stimulation, DC maturation involves a burst of Ag processing with enhanced expression of peptide-class II MHC complexes and costimulator molecules. Subsequently, class II MHC (MHC-II) synthesis and expression in intracellular vacuolar compartments is inhibited, decreasing Ag processing function. This limits presentation to a cohort of Ags kinetically associated with the maturation stimulus and excludes presentation of Ags subsequently experienced by the DC. In contrast, our studies show that IFN-I enhances DC expression of MHC-II and costimulatory molecules without a concomitant inhibition of subsequent MHC-II synthesis and Ag processing. Expression of mRNA for MHC-II and the transcription factor CIITA is inhibited in DCs treated with TLR agonists but maintained in cells treated with IFN-I. After stimulation with IFN-I, MHC-II expression is increased on the plasma membrane but is also maintained in intracellular vacuolar compartments, consistent with sustained Ag processing function. These findings suggest that IFN-I drives a distinctive DC maturation program that enhances Ag presentation to T cells without a shutdown of Ag processing, allowing continued sampling of Ags for presentation.
Maturation definition, the act or process of maturating. See more.
Act II, scene ii is a pivotal scene: Gaunt dies, giving Richard the opportunity to show his true colors in stealing Henry's inheritance, and he loses the support of York, which he will dearly regret when he returns from Ireland.