It was under UNAMIR’s supervision that the Tutsi-based Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA) signed the Arusha Accords of 1993 with Juvenal Habyarimana, an officer from the Hutu tribe who, after leading a successful coup in the 1970s, became the president of the country. While this was a power-sharing deal, the extremist factions of the north-western Hutu saw it as nothing but surrender to their rivals, the Tutsis.
The justice system serves as a key indicator of the innovation with which the country has dealt with its affairs since 1994. Amadou Sy, a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution who also worked at the IMF, underscored the difficulty of rebuilding an economy in the wake of a genocide. He explained that Rwandans had to “restart their economy, from the ground up.” The initial boost from the foreign aid and assistance — albeit too late for any sort of genocide prevention — led to a 13 percent growth rate in real GDP in 1996. Then, the country turned its focus toward a vision for the future. The results have been remarkable. Between 2006 and 2011, customers of electricity more than doubled in Rwanda, and those living under the poverty line moved from 57 percent to 45 percent.
The Rwandan Genocide | Modern History Project 2012
During the Rwandan genocide of April to July 1994, an estimated half a million to one million people were killed: over 5,000 people every day and over 200 every hour.
Remembering the heroes of the Rwandan Genocide - Ventures Africa
The most astounding knowledge today is how, or rather why, the international community remained silent for so long while humans were murdered with machetes and grenades. Some academics, such as Dominique Maritz, author of the paper “Rwandan Genocide: Failure of the International Community,” argue that the UN in particular wanted to avoid another Somalia — a case of peacekeeping gone horribly wrong, as multiple foreign soldiers were killed in the violence in Mogadishu the year before the Rwandan genocide. We can only ponder why the UN at that point did not differentiate between the two cases.
Rwandan Genocide « World Without Genocide
Mbaku, meanwhile, spoke about the necessity of early warning mechanisms. He said that these mechanisms would “provide the international community with enough information to take decisive action.” The result, he hopes, would be that “such conflicts between groups… do not result in genocide, crimes against humanity, and/or ethnic cleansing.” R2P’s emphasis on prevention is another reason why the document earned so much support during its conception.
Rwandan Genocide - New World Encyclopedia
It is important to note the fact that Rwanda did not constitute a national interest for any of the parties that could have played a role in mitigating the crisis, such as the U.S. or France. Belgium, the country’s former colonizer, was the largest contributor to UNAMIR, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda. However, after 10 Belgian soldiers perished in clashes on April 7, the country switched to evacuating expats out of Rwanda as quickly as possible.
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In spite of the perspective gained from cases like Rwanda, Srebrenica, and others, the international community has been woefully inept at dealing with crises, even since the adoption of R2P. The ongoing civil war in Syria, in which a brutal regime continues attacking its own people, is just the most current example. There are complications in the case — with intervention through a Security Council resolution being blocked by Russia — but complications should not prevent action during pressing crises.