Now, the Indians' camp lay on the farther side of the Little Big Horn River, in the edge of the timber and immediately in front of a long bluff extending some five miles parallel with the river's bank, which was insurmountable for cavalry except at certain places because of its precipitous, rocky sides.
The closer the timeline of life on Earth gets to the appearance of humanity, the less our ancestry is doubted among scientists, and there is virtual certainty that is humanity’s direct ancestor. Their brains were nearly the size of modern humans and they inherited from their ancestors and used them for hundreds of thousands of years. There is plenty of evidence that migrated to Western Eurasia about 800 kya. But there is evidence that somewhere around 500 kya that began to change; there is evidence of in today’s South Africa. in today’s Germany, along with butchered horses, dated to about 400 kya. Scientists today are confident that was also the direct ancestor of , and the split began around 500 kya. The range of was Africa, West Asia, and Europe, but the advancing and retreating ice sheets of Eurasia, Europe in particular, kept driving southward, and during one of the retreats, it seems that the ancestors of Neanderthals stayed. Neanderthals became a cold-adapted species that specialized in hunting big game. As the evidence demonstrates today, life was a brutal proposition in humanity’s early days, and was particularly harsh for Neanderthals. They probably could not throw very well and relied on ambush predation. Scientists have studied Neanderthal bones and , but a , partly in light of recent evidence that Neanderthals may have also developed wooden throwing spears. But whether Neanderthals had to stab their prey in close quarters or eventually learned to throw weapons at them, the studies of early human bones describe a grim existence. Breaking bones were regular events, particularly skull fractures, and that was for trauma survivors.
Battle Of Little Bighorn | HistoryNet
Those processes and events can interact with each other, and a few examples can provide an idea of the dynamics’ complexity. What follows are today’s orthodox views, to the best of my knowledge, and they can certainly change in the future, perhaps even radically, just as cosmological and subatomic theories may change radically. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others. Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms.
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I earlier compared people from different epochs. That stone tool Tesla what his/her invention would lead to a half-million years later, and members of the founding group could not have comprehended . Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into Rome in 100 CE or London in 1500 CE. History has some relevant examples. When , about the last of his people, came out of hiding in his dying world and strode into civilization, it caused a sensation. He soon died of tuberculosis, but his encounters with civilization were recorded. He attended an opera, and the popular account portrayed his rapport with the diva, but Ishi actually stared in amazement at the , as he had never before seen so many people in one place. When he saw an airplane in flight, he laughed in amazement. Imagine a hunter-gatherer of 10 kya being dropped into imperial Rome. That hunter-gatherer had probably seen dogs, but horses, cows, sheep, and the like would have been astounding, and watching a horse or ox pull a cart would have been stunning. Crops would have been an amazing sight. Imagine that hunter-gatherer at the . The building and crowd alone would have boggled his mind, even if the festivities might have been horrifically familiar. Metals and glass would have seemed magical. Writing had not yet been invented in that hunter-gatherer’s world, so even the concept would have been difficult. Imagine him trying to learn math. There were no more singing and dancing religious rituals, and no wide-open spaces to hunt a meal. Imagine that hunter-gatherer visiting a Roman bath. Hot water alone would have been surreal, while the cavorting might have been delightful. What would his reaction have been to Rome’s markets? Rome was also loud and could be hellish, so the hunter-gatherer might have longed to flee to the countryside before long, but the countryside would have little resembled the one he knew. He obviously would not have understood anything that anybody said, but they were also all members of , so he would have seen many behaviors and traits that he eventually understood. But how long would his shock have lasted? Could he have really ever adapted to Roman society (if he did not quickly end up on the arena’s stage as a novelty)? Another surprise for that hunter-gatherer would be seeing people interact who did not know each other. People were interacting with members and not trying to kill them on sight, which became standard behavior in most hunter-gatherer societies that battled over territory (their food supply). Civilized life was all made possible by the local and stable energy source that agriculture provided, which led to an epoch that changed very little until the next energy source was tapped: the hydrocarbon energy that powered the Industrial Revolution. The next chapter will survey the developments that led to that momentous event. It is the only Epochal Event with historical documentation that showed how it developed, which is easier to reconstruct than examining stones and bones.