The Theses on Feuerbach contain one of Marx’s most memorable remarks:“the philosophers have only interpreted the world, the point isto change it” (thesis 11). However the eleven theses as a wholeprovide, in the compass of a couple of pages, a remarkable digest ofMarx’s reaction to the philosophy of his day. Several of these havebeen touched on already (for example, the discussions of religion intheses 4, 6 and 7, and revolution in thesis 3) so here I willconcentrate only on the first, most overtly philosophical, thesis.
Rand shoots for a "conceptualist" theory of universals, which avoids an Aristotelian "realism" of substantial essences on the one hand and the subjectivism of "nominalism," where universals are just words, on the other hand.
Communism - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy
Her development of Aristotle, on the other hand, ends up with something rather like view of concepts: Concepts refer to every characteristic contained in every individual of their kind.
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This leads us now to Marx’s assessment of communism. Would communismbe a just society? In considering Marx’s attitude to communism andjustice there are really only two viable possibilities: either hethought that communism would be a just society or he thought that theconcept of justice would not apply: that communism would transcendjustice.
Socialism, Capitalism and Communism - Culture War
Communism is described by Marx, in the Critique of the GothaProgramme, as a society in which each person should contributeaccording to their ability and receive according to their need. Thiscertainly sounds like a theory of justice, and could be adopted assuch. However it is possibly truer to Marx’s thought to say that thisis part of an account in which communism transcends justice, as Lukeshas argued.
On this page we will compare Socialism, Capitalism and Communism
Marx, though, once more refrained from making this explicit; heseemed to show no interest in locating his criticism of capitalism inany of the traditions of moral philosophy, or explaining how he wasgenerating a new tradition. There may have been two reasons for hiscaution. The first was that while there were bad things aboutcapitalism, there is, from a world historical point of view, much goodabout it too. For without capitalism, communism would not bepossible. Capitalism is to be transcended, not abolished, and this maybe difficult to convey in the terms of moral philosophy.
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Whatever one concludes on the question of whether Marx thoughtcapitalism unjust, it is, nevertheless, obvious that Marx thought thatcapitalism was not the best way for human beings to live. Pointsmade in his early writings remain present throughout his writings, ifno longer connected to an explicit theory of alienation. The workerfinds work a torment, suffers poverty, overwork and lack offulfillment and freedom. People do not relate to each other as humansshould.
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While Communism failed and fell in the real world, in the make-believe world of Hollywood Communist propaganda succeeded quite nicely, and many people still believe that the HUAC investigations were "witch hunts" for non-existent enemies or well-meaning idealists.