There are five contemporary translations of the Talmud into English:

Historical study of the Talmud can be used to investigate a variety of concerns. One can ask questions such as: Do a given section's sources date from its editor's lifetime? To what extent does a section have earlier or later sources? Are Talmudic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines? In what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? Investigation of questions such as these are known as higher textual criticism. (The term "criticism", it should be noted, is a technical term denoting academic study.)

The Babylonian Talmud, comprising both the  and the , contains large swaths of both  and .
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Eadem, “The Talmudic Expression ‘Servant of the Fire’ in the Light of Pahlavi Legal Sources,” in Studies in Honor of Shaul Shaked, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 26, 2002, pp. 109-29.


IN THE MISHNAH-FORM" (Lauterbach, , p.

Ber. i. 1: The text of this paragraph, which begins the Mishnah,is as follows:
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Thus, it would seem that, for Mahozan Jewish society, polygyny, temporary marriage, and the entrance of women into social relations are evidence of Iranian influence. Even their view of women’s strong sexual desires matched those of the neighboring Iranian cultures (Elman, 2003b, pp. 242-47). Again, Rava’s permissive stance in regard to daytime marital intercourse (Niddah, fol. 17a) had a Zoroastrian demonological belief at its base, as did the Talmud’s suggestion that nail-parings should be buried (Williams, II, pp. 61-62; Gafni, 1990, p. 171; Elman, 2007a, pp. 141-44; idem, 2007c, p. 179; Vidēvdād, chap. 17).


The Mishnah is a compilation of legal opinions and ..

The nearest approach to a critical edition is that of Hanoch Albeck. There is also an edition by Yosef Qafih of the Mishnah together with the commentary of , which compares the base text used by Maimonides with the Napoli and Vilna editions and other sources.

Judaism: The making of the Mishna

The Talmud is a wide-ranging document that touches on a great many subjects. Traditionally Talmudic statements can be classified into two broad categories, Halakhic and Aggadic statements. Halakhic statements are those which directly relate to questions of Jewish law and practice (). Aggadic statements are those which are not legally related, but rather are exegetical, homiletical, ethical or historical in nature. See for further discussion.

The Mishnah - Jewish Literature in New Testament …

As the Rabbis were required to face two shattering new realities—Judaism without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that Rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing. The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the committing of Oral Law into writing was first explained in the Epistle of and often repeated.

Talmud, Mishnah, and Rabbinic Literature

The process of "Gemara" proceeded in the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, the and . Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud or the Talmud Yerushalmi. It was compiled sometime during the fourth century in Israel. The Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500 C.E., although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud.