During these years other experimental schools wereestablished around the country, and in 1919 the Progressive Education Associationwas founded, aiming at "reforming the entire school system of America."
The Progressives were urban, Northeast, educated, middle-class, Protestant reform-minded men and women. There was no official until 1912, but progressivism had already swept the nation.
This one should aim for three things
John Goodlad's notion of "nongraded" schools (introduced in the late 1950s),Theodore Sizer's network of "essential" schools, Elliott Wigginton's , and Deborah Meier's student-centered Central Park East schoolsare some well known examples of progressive reforms in public education;in the 1960s, critics like Paul Goodman and George Dennison took Dewey'sideas in a more radical direction, helping give rise to the free schoolmovement.
Progress Report: - Reclaim the American Dream
Modeled on Summerhill, and supported by the challenges at that timeof structures of authority, both within education and the largersociety,"free schools" proliferated, and eventually helped give rise to theOpenEducation Movement. The Open Education Movement was nothing new; it wasjust a repetition of progressivist programs promoted in the 1920s, butthe idea of letting children decide each day what they should learn atactivity tables, play corners, or reading centers, was once againpromotedas profound and revolutionary.41
Progressive Movement - American Historama
Results from National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) werereleased in February 1996. While the nation as a whole made someimprovements,California's fourth graders scored below their peers in 40 states andcameout ahead of only those in Mississippi. A careful analysis of NAEPtrendsfor the nation as a whole was published by the Brookings Institutionlaterin September 2000, but California's relative downward slide reinforcedthe political will toward writing explicit mathematics standards andrectifyingthe 1992 framework to include more attention to basic skills.83Adding to California's concerns was a steady increase in remedial mathcourses on the 23 campus California State University (CSU) system. Thepercentage of entering freshmen failing an entry level math test usedbythe CSU, and requiring remedial courses, steadily increased from 23% in1989 to 54% in each of 1997 and 1998. While there was no proof that thedecrease in math skills was caused by the constructivist math programsin the schools, school mathematics seemed to be getting worse ratherthanbetter as the NCTM reform agenda expanded.