For percussion instruments with a definite pitch, there are a number of slightly complex looking formulas that will give you the frequency of the instrument:For xylophones, marimbas, or other instruments using vibrating plates or rods supported in the same way, you would use the equation:
For drums you would use the equation:
In these equations L is the length of the bar, v is the velocity of sound in the object, k is a constant that changes depending on the object:
Another neat way of exploring the factors affecting flow rate in liquids is shown in the diagram below. It could be used in university physics. The motion sensor measures the changing height of the water column by using an ultrasound beam. These are commonly available in high school laboratories these days (Vernier, DataLogger Pro etc). Again, by changing the thickness of the tube, or length, or viscosity you can measure the rate of change of height (the height of water is related to pressure (P = F/A = mg/A = ρgh). For high school, you could also keep pressure constant by having a small hose from the lab tap going into the top of the column (and doing away with the motion sensor). You could do it with a plastic water bottle, a stopper or two and some glass tubing. What a great EEI! A paper about this experiment is available from the . Click to download. If you do it as an EEI be sure to send me a photo for this page.
The Physics of Sound - The Method Behind the Music
To change wind speed you could adjust the setting on a fan (off, 1, 2, 3). That would give you 4 "treatments" or data points but they are not a measured physical quantity (but just someone's idea of fast and slow). Five points would be better, so you could shift the fan away from the "roof" to make the speed lower. To measure the speed (important for an EEI) you could use an anemometer (wind speed meter) that most schools seem to have (if not in Science, try Geography). Alternatively, there is a windspeed app "Wind Meter" (Gay, THE Gay Group, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Nebraska Multimedia Football Physics Course (Text, Images, Videos/Movies & Audio/Sound)..99) for iPhone that is amazingly accurate (I compared it with a $99 Windtronic and the results were in excellent agreement). It's also available for Android. It uses the microphone as a sensor and the loudness of the sound is a measure of the speed. If you can't get steady results from the scale it may be that the weight of the device is too light and it is jumping up and down a bit on the pan. Make it out of something a bit heavier.
Martindale's Calculators On-Line Center: Physics Center: …
It will concentrate mainly on four wheeled, petrol driven vehicles, but the same physical problems apply to all kinds of vehicles..." Examples of "Physics of Motorsport" Course Chapters include For more information see ; ; or the
Multimedia Physics of Auto Racing Course (Text & Images).
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I bought a Zero Toys "Vapor-Ring" gun on-line for $23. It produces vapour "smoke" rings about 5 -10 cm in diameter that shoot out a few metres. They are not really smoke but are condensed water vapour clouds produced by a mist of cold alcohol vapour in the gun. It even has a blue LED light and ray-gun sound effect. This suggests a possible EEI. I don't think you'd have much of an EEI if you just had fun with them and tried to make the biggest or fastest ring you could. You need a hypothesis about some variables that you can justify with reference to physics principles, and a means of manipulating these variables.
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Naive attempts at explaining the radiated sound field in terms of compressions, rarefactions, and interference effects are unable to explain the results very well. Many physics texts attempt to explain the sound field close to the fork do so in terms of constructive and destructive interference effects but the tines of a tuning fork are almost always separated by a distance much smaller than half a wavelength of the sound emitted, which means that interference effects should be noticed only at significant distances from the tuning fork. Furthermore, the minima are not symmetrically spaced at 45° from the plane of the fork instead the first minima occurs at approximately 54°.
Band - definition of band by The Free Dictionary
The acoustics laboratories at Rollins are stocked with state-of-the-art acoustical equipment, but one of the unique and most important aspects is the integration of new laser-based technology to the study of sound. New techniques and equipment have been developed at Rollins for visualizing minute vibrations of objects and students routinely use this equipment in their research along with high-speed cameras, laser Doppler vibrometers, and extensive computing resources. Using these techniques, Dr. Moore’s research examines brass instruments, piano, and percussion instrument acoustics, while Dr. Coyle focuses on woodwind instrument acoustics.