And for the same reason one could, of course,entertain the erroneous thought that one is now awake. The questionthen becomes whether beliefs are strictly necessary for dreamdeception or whether other mental states such entertaining, thinkingetc. might be sufficient. For instance, as Reed (1979) argues, dreamscan still count as deceptive even if they do not involve stronglyappraisive beliefs, but only minimally appraisive instancesof taking for granted. It has also been argued that ifdream-beliefs fall short of real beliefs, this makes the specter ofdream deception more, rather than less, worrisome. Ichikawa (2008)argues that on the imagination view of dreaming, we mistakedream-beliefs for real beliefs and thus are deceived as to the statusof our own mental states. Because we cannot reliably distinguishdream-beliefs from real ones, and because knowing that prequires knowing that one believes that p, one can have noreflective knowledge if the imagination view of dreaming turns out tobe correct. In order to escape this persistent vulnerability toskepticism, the imagination theorist would have to deny not just thatdream beliefs, but also that wonderings, thoughts, affirmationetc. are real instances of their kind. This however places aconsiderable burden on the imagination theory, and while one mightwant to accept that dream beliefs are too defective to count as realones, the same might not be true for mere instances of thinking orwondering.
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Instruction for critical thinking fosters insight rather than mere performance; it cultivates the achievement of deeper knowledge and understanding through insight.
See elements of thought, dialogical instruction, knowledge.
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Where are we going? What are we here for? People need awareness of the whole, and are truly interested in what direction the organization is taking. Gone are the days when employees could be expected to stay in one place of work forever. As well, levels of education have surely risen and good employees no longer have to stay where they find the organizational and leadership structure lacking. Leveraging organizational knowledge is emerging as the solution to an increasingly fragmented and globally-dispersed workplace. Organizations that do provide a goal to reach in the future can provide great incentive for a KM initiative. Effective leveraging lies within an organization's capacity for rethinking and recreating. One thing for certain is that when questions, big questions (questions that matter to the future of an organization) are asked and explored, it can be a very powerful force because it is essential for co-evolving the futures we want, rather than the futures we get.
Jeremy Taylor | Marin Institute for Projective Dream …
If you are interested in the knowledge grid, you probably need a knowledge management system. Knowledge cultures are those in which formal attention is paid to what some academics have called the "knowledge grid." It has four categories: "what we know we know; what we know we don't know; what we don't know we know; and what we don't know we don't know." If you understand that reuse of knowledge saves work, reduces communication costs, and allows a company to take on more projects, then knowledge management is for your organization.
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Only if your department wants to stop constantly reengineering and downsizing: talented people are assets to be developed for a global 21st century. Partly as a reaction to downsizing, some organizations are now trying to use technology to capture the knowledge residing in the minds of their employees so it can be easily shared across the enterprise. No longer should companies have to worry that employees will walk out the door with valuable knowledge that it no longer has access to. Although many individuals may come and go, their learning is embedded for future use. Knowledge when locked into systems or processes has higher inherent value than when it can 'walk out of the door' in people's heads. Leveraging organizational knowledge is emerging as the solution to an increasingly fragmented and globally dispersed workplace. For many of these companies, knowledge management has become the next silver bullet. In effect, knowledge management is the successor to the reengineering and downsizing efforts that marked the last decade.