Traces of IgD may likewise be found in the secretions but withoutobvious biologic significance. Regulation of secretory immunity takesplace both in organized lymphoepithelial structures in the gut, such asthe Peyer's patches, and adjacent to the glands in the lamina propria ofthe gut .
The study of Zhang et al. significantly advances our understanding of the effects of opioids on the immune system, but considerable work remains before concluding the relative importance of the several mechanisms involved in explaining the effects of opioids on the immune system.
Opioids and the immune system: what is their mechanism …
When morphine is given in vivo, the situation is considerably more complex. It was shown by Shavit et al. in 1986 that morphine decreased splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity in rats, but that methyl-morphine, which does not pass the blood-brain barrier, did not. He concluded that the suppressive effect of morphine on peripheral NK cell activity was mediated by neural circuits (). Weber and Pert demonstrated that injection of morphine into the periaqueductal grey region of the brain, but not other regions, inhibited NK cell activity in rat spleen cells placed ex vivo 3 h later (). Carr provided evidence that α-adrenoceptor stimulated circuits mediated suppression of NK cell activity in mouse spleens (). A single s.c. injection of morphine has also been found to depress the response of rat peripheral blood T cells to the mitogen, concanavalin A, 2 h later. This immunosuppressive activity of morphine was not mediated by pituitary or adrenal factors () but by nicotinic receptors (). There is ample evidence that the sympathetic nervous system can directly innervate lymphoid tissue in the spleen and alter immune function (), and neuropeptide Y, a sympathetic transmitter, was shown to inhibit morphine-induced suppression of rat splenic NK cell activity (). Exposure of morphine-treated animals in vivo to FasL complexed to a carrier molecule, blocked the decrease in splenic weight following morphine administration by injection, suggesting Fas signalling as the mechanism for loss of organ cellularity (). Thus, morphine administered in vivo may modulate immune function in vivo through a variety of indirect pathways, of which induction of corticosteroids is one. Careful review of the literature reveals many complexities, as there are differences in the mediator for different immunological end points. Further, mechanisms may vary depending on the time of exposure to the drug. Some studies use acute exposure and others, like the present paper, use chronic exposure. Importantly, as documented above, morphine clearly has the capacity to directly interact with cells of the immune system in vitro and to alter their activity. Therefore, the possibility also needs to be considered that a mechanism by which morphine can exert immunomodulatory activity in vivo is by directly binding to cells of the immune system via opioid receptors.
Posts about opioids written by Kevin McCormack ..
Cook County Health & Hospitals System (CCHHS), including the , the and the have joined in a task force to coordinate their response to this growing epidemic and are releasing annual reports about the local opioid crisis.
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Not only is the number of opioid-related medical emergencies multiplying, the cases tend to be more severe than they have been in the past, largely because of the emergence of highly-potent synthetic opioids like fentanyl. The use of synthetic opioids has increased drastically. From 2014 to 2015, the national death rate from these drugs increased by 72.2%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2016, the Cook County Health & Hospitals System saw more than 5,000 opioid-related emergency department visits, up from 1,000 visits in 2006.
The Truth About Addictive Food Opioids | John …
The U.S. is facing an opioid epidemic, and Cook County is not immune. In the last decade, opioid use and abuse has skyrocketed, becoming a public health crisis that shows no signs of slowing down.