Octavian raised an army on his own.

Octavian, now renamed withthe honorific title Augustus (he had considered and rejected the name ofRomulus as having unpleasantly regal associations) was made governor enabsentia of Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyprus and Syria for ten years withproconsular authority, the provinces to be governed in actuality by hisappointees, who had the title of legatus Augusti.

In 43 at Mutina Antony was defeatedby Octavian with armies given to him by the senate.

3.14-21) puts windy speechesinto both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refusesby claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already,or not yet counted.


In40 Antony married Octavian's sister Octavia.

In actual fact, the motive of Octavian, the future Augustus,was lust for power.

Themore convincing case is on the side of the "retroactive" view: see theexcellent summary in Benario, "Octavian's Status." See also Bleicken, , 65-82; id.,, 269-70; W.


Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister,Octavia.

Octavian was electedconsul that year for the first time at the unusually young age of nineteen;he had refused to fight unless he got the consulship because he was convincedthat the senate would discard him after they had used him to get rid ofAntony.

He beat off attempts by Octavianto oust him from Sicily.

In 42 Antony and Octavian defeated Brutus and Cassius, the murderers ofCaesar, in two battles at Philippi in Macedonia; the credit went to Antonybecause Octavian was ill during the fighting.

The victory of Octavian was complete.

In the division of provinces and duties after Philippi, Antony got thepotential wealth and glory of the East, and Octavian got the difficulttask of settling veterans in Italy by confiscating property, since therewas no money yet to buy it.

Octavian was to remainin control, that much was clear.

In that year at Perusia Octavianfought and defeated Antony's brother, Lucius, who had objected to Octavian'sreceiving credit for settling troops in Italy before Antony returned fromthe East.

Julius CaesarOctavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus.

Octavian tried to win the supportof Sextus Pompey and his fleet by marrying Pompey's aunt, Scribonia, inwhat was now Octavian's third and penultimate match, producing his onlydaughter, Julia.

Benario, H.W., "Octavian's Status in 32 BC," 5 (1975):301-9.

Alsolike Gabba, Reinhold and Swan find in Dio the standard separation betweenOctavian the warlord and Augustus the princeps; the former is treatedfrom the perspective of Thucydidean realpolitik, but for the latterthey also see Dio's true feelings expressed in Tiberius' eulogy.