Petroleum contamination and environmental degradation associated with exploitation and production of petroleum resources has clearly impacted the natural environment, human health and safety, physical and socio–economic environments in the Niger Delta. In addition, unsustainable operational practices by the multinational oil companies and the ineffective government's petroleum development policies has led to more socio–economic problems and complex environmental degradation in the Niger Delta. Although it is becoming increasingly apparent to the multinational oil companies that pollution prevention pays, petroleum exploration and production environmental issues discussed in this review are widespread in oil–producing host communities in the Niger Delta. In order to achieve sustainable development, both the government and the multinational oil companies need to adopt environmental friendly approach and technologically advanced production operations that minimizes the associated environmental pollution. Adoption of effective sustainable reforms will encourage responsible petroleum exploration and production activities in ways that will positively influence economic development of host communities and protect human and environmental health in the near and long term. Considering the past and present petroleum contamination, it is important to understand the short and long term impacts of hydrocarbon contamination and hydrocarbon discharges from petroleum facilities in order to develop effective remediation and management strategies. Environmental remediation is urgently needed in many of the aged petroleum contaminated sites, where land use may be changing from petroleum production to residential, agricultural and recreational uses in the future. Therefore, effective understanding of petroleum production and associated environmental degradation is importance for developing sustainable strategies for risks mitigation, management and remediation of environmental contamination.
The occasional expressions in Latin are drawn from , Volume II, Books III and IV, edited and translated by Majorie Chibnall [Oxford Medieval Texts, Clarendon Press, 1969, 1990, 2002, pp.202-204]:
Meanwhile the English were oppressed by the insolence of the Normans, and subjected to grievous outrages by the haughty governors who disregarded the king's injunctions.
Naples, past and present : Norway ..
This review examines the implications of past and present contributions of multinational oil companies operations and the Nigerian government towards environmental degradation in the Niger Delta. It will further highlights some of the issues of environmental degradation resulting from unsustainable practices associated with petroleum exploration, exploitation and production in the region.
And this is the purpose for giving
The present perfect tense is used to express something that happened in the past, and which is completely finished (not habitual or continuous). To form this compound tense, which can translate as something happened, something has happened, or something did happen, conjugate avere or sometimes essere and add the past participle. To form the past participle, add these endings to the appropriate stem of the infinitives:
Grammar: Verbs | A New Life In Norway
Verbs that can take a direct object are generally conjugated with avere. Verbs that do not take a direct object (generally verbs of movement), as well as all reflexive verbs, are conjugated with essere and their past participle must agree in gender and number with the subject. Avere uses avere as its auxiliary verb, while essere uses essere as its auxiliary verb. Negative sentences in the present perfect tense are formed by placing in front of the auxiliary verb. Common adverbs of time are placed between avere/essere and the past participle.
(Presens or Present) spiste = ate (Preteritum or Past) ..
Petroleum exploration and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta region and export of oil and gas resources by the petroleum sector has substantially improved the nation’s economy over the past five decades. However, activities associated with petroleum exploration, development and production operations have local detrimental and significant impacts on the atmosphere, soils and sediments, surface and groundwater, marine environment and terrestrial ecosystems in the Niger Delta. Discharges of petroleum hydrocarbon and petroleum–derived waste streams have caused environmental pollution, adverse human health effects, socio–economic problems and degradation of host communities in the 9 oil–producing states in the Niger Delta region. Many approaches have been developed for the management of environmental impacts of petroleum production–related activities and several environmental laws have been institutionalized to regulate the Nigerian petroleum industry. However, the existing statutory laws and regulations for environmental protection appear to be grossly inadequate and some of the multinational oil companies operating in the Niger Delta region have failed to adopt sustainable practices to prevent environmental pollution. This review examines the implications of multinational oil companies operations and further highlights some of the past and present environmental issues associated with petroleum exploitation and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Although effective understanding of petroleum production and associated environmental degradation is importance for developing management strategies, there is a need for more multidisciplinary approaches for sustainable risk mitigation and effective environmental protection of the oil–producing host communities in the Niger Delta.