The Mongol military tactics and organization helped the Mongols to conquer nearly all of continental Asia, the Middle East and parts of eastern Europe. In many ways, it can be regarded as the first "modern" military system.
When facing European armies, with their emphasis on heavy cavalry, it was obviously not the Mongol's style to engage in heavy melee combat against a strong and unshaken foe, but rather picked off the heavy cavalry at long distances with their bows. In the few cases where armor actually withstood their arrows, the Mongols simply killed the Knight's horses, leaving a heavily armored man afoot, unable to go any distance. At the Battle of Mohi, the Mongols left open a gap in their ranks, luring the Hungarians into retreating through it, which resulted in their being strung out over all the countryside, and easy pickings for mounted archers who simply galloped along and picked them off, while the lancers skewered them as they fled. At Legnica, the Teutonic, Templar and Hospitaller knights were able to make a stand dismounted, and inflicted unusually heavy casualties on the Mongols - but were killed in the end. The Mongols simply accepted the casualties, and destroyed the Knights, who were outnumbered.
Mongol military tactics and organization - Sources
The Roman Empire was not the largest empire that the world has ever known; that honour goes to the Mongol Empire. However Rome is is considered the greatest in terms of management and territorial quality, organization and socio-political importance for the mark left in the history of humanity. In all the territories over which the Empire ruled, the Romans built towns, roads, bridges, aqueducts, fortifications, exporting their model of civilization everywhere at the same time assimilating the subject peoples and civilizations, in a process so deep that even after centuries the end of the Empire these people continued to call themselves Roman. The civilization founded on the banks of the Tiber, is the basis for Western civilization.
The Mongol Dynasty | Asia Society
In order to maintain military advantage over the growing Chinese empire, the Mongols captured Chinese technicians and forced them to reveal their secrets.
Top 10 Greatest Empires In History - Listverse
Genghis Khan organized the Mongol soldiers into groups based on the decimal system. Units were recursively built from groups of 10 (Arban), 100 (Yaghun), 1,000 (Minghan), and 10,000 (), each with a leader reporting to the next higher level. Tumens, and sometimes Minghans, were commanded by a , who was often given the task to administrate specific conquered territories. From two to five Tumens would then form a hordu meaning army corps or field army, from which the word "Horde" is derived, under the command of the Khans or their generals (boyan).
The Role of the Mongols - MonkeyTree Webucation Media
Most European armies consisted of a few professional men at arms, and Knights, and large levies of peasants or militia. Only the Knights and the few professional fighting men trained regularly, and their training emphasized individual combat, such as jousting, rather than group combat tactics. The Mongol armies, by contrast, constantly practiced horsemanship, archery, and unit tactics, formations and rotations. This training was maintained by a hard, but not overly harsh or unreasonable, discipline.
Women in Mongol society - Welcome to The Realm of …
These states included the Golden Horde in Russia, the Ilkhan Empire in Iran, and the Empire of Jagatai in Central Asia, not to mention the central hub of Mongol rule in China.
Genghis Khan and the Great Mongol Empire - World …
The Mongols carefully scouted and spied out their enemies in advance of any invasion. For instance, prior to the invasion of Europe, Batu and Subutai sent spies for almost ten years into the heart of Europe, making maps of the old Roman roads, establishing trade routes, and determining the level of ability of each principality to resist invasion. They made well educated guesses as to the willingness of each principality to aid the others, and the level of ability of each to resist alone, and in toto.