Some of the key influencers are:

The study found "no simple correlation between parents' literacy level, educational background, amount of time spent on literacy work with children, and overall achievement." Auerbach's review of the ethnographic studies of family literacy found that a two-way support system (as opposed to simply parent-to-child literacy learning) characterized the literacy interactions of many low-income, minority and immigrant families. One study of parental involvement based on a model of children reading to parents found that children who read to their parents on a regular basis made greater gains than children receiving an equivalent amount of extra reading instruction by reading specialists at school (Tizard, Schofield, & Hewison, 1982). Auerbach's work also shows that "indirect factors including frequency of children's outings with adults, number of maternal outings, emotional climate of the home, amount of time spent interacting with adults, level of financial stress, enrichment activities, and parental involvement with the schools had a stronger effect on many aspects of reading and writing than did direct literacy activities, such as help with homework" (Auerbach, 1989). A firm understanding of the family context will increase our understanding of the "strengths" of educationally disadvantaged families that contribute to the children's academic success. Teale (1986) argues that a frequent shortcoming of research on the effects of family background is its correlational design.

Separation  typically occurs at about six to ten months of age and peaks between 18 and 24 months.

A parents job is to be a model for the child and show them good morals to show the child how to behave and act the way they think they should act.
Children usually see how the parents act and they start to act the same way because they think its right.
It also depends on the parent that the child has.

A Parent's Influence - Christian Broadcasting Network

Ann Benjamin and is part of a series published by the office of Research of the U.

Responsive parenting is one of the aspects of parenting most frequently described when we try to understand the role the environment plays in children’s development. Research shows it has the potential to promote normal developmental trajectories for high-risk children, such as those from low-income backgrounds and/or those with very premature births.13 In contrast, unresponsive parenting may jeopardize children’s development, particularly those at higher risk for developmental problems.14 The critical importance of responsive parenting is highlighted by recent evidence identifying links between high levels of early responsive parenting and larger hippocampal volumes for normally developing preschool aged children. Increased volume in this brain region is associated with more optimal development of a number of psychosocial factors (e.g., stress reactivity).15 Links between early responsive parenting and increased volume in the hippocampal region also suggest that the early developmental period is an important time to facilitate responsive parenting practices, especially in high risk families, in order to enhance the parent-child relationship. Given the potential importance of responsive parenting, more specific knowledge of the types of behaviours that are most important for supporting particular areas of a child’s learning could further our understanding of how to facilitate effective parenting practices.


Middleton and Loughead (1993) talk of how parents can be an important and positive influence in decisions affecting a young person's vocational development. Though they also warn that over-involvement in the decision- making process can undermine parental effects as a positive source of influence. Excessive parental control regarding adolescents' occupational decision-making results in negative outcomes. Nucci (1996). Parents should be cautioned against imposing their own goals on to their children or seeing their child’s accomplishments as a reflection on themselves. So while parents should show genuine interest and support for their adolescents‘ career plans, they must allow adolescents to discover who they are on their own. Some teenagers fear the disapproval of their parents if they pursue a career in art/drama/music as opposed to a practical high-earning occupation such as law or medicine. If parents make it clear that they have no specific expectations for their child’s career, he/she will feel free to explore a greater variety of professions, choosing one based on their own preferences rather than those of their parents.

Parental role and influence can contribute ..

Parents influence the level of education or training that their children achieve; the knowledge they have about work and different occupations; the beliefs and attitudes they have to working; and the motivation they have to succeed. Most of this is learned unconsciously – children and teenagers absorb their parents attitudes and expectations of them as they grow up.

How Dads Influence Teens' Happiness - Scientific American

Parents serve as a major influence in their children’s career development and career decision- making. Parents want their children to find happiness and success in life and one factor which influences happiness and success is career choice. Research also indicates that when students feel supported and loved by their parents, they have more confidence in their own ability to research careers and to choose a career that would be interesting and exciting. This is important because studies show that adolescents who feel competent regarding career decision-making, tend to make more satisfying career choices later in life. (Keller 2004).