The industrial growth centred chiefly on the North.

For several years, Europe’s intelligence services have feared that Muslim extremists who have travelled to Syria, Iraq and elsewhere to fight would return home to plot carnage, and the gunmen’s ruthless efficiency left little doubt that they had received military training.

Hand labour remained widespread, limiting the production capacity of industry.

O’Brien et al "Political components of the industrial revolution: parliament and the English cotton textile industry, 1660-1774," EHR (1991), pp. 394-423.


Then industrialization in France really started.

Eltis, D. and S. Engerman, "The Importance of Slavery and the Slave Trade to Industrializing Britain,"JEH, vol. 60 no. 1 (Mar. 2000), pp. 123-44.


full effects of industrialization like Great Britain, France, ..

Mechanisation was very fast. By the end of the 19th century, the United States led the world in manufacturing and industry. The United States had the largest and most productive economy in the world.

France in the 19th century : Industrialization in France

The Industrial Revolution in the United States was encouraged by a large number of European specialists. The United States was seen as a 'land of opportunity'. Like Britain, it was possible to rise from poverty to riches through industrial business. For businessmen, social mobility was easy. European specialists were attracted to the United States by the idea of great profit.

How did the industrialization of Europe in the ..

Encouraged by the prospect of political independence, the Americans enthusiastically pursued industrialisation. A number of associations and groups were created to encourage manufacturing and industry. America was a large country, rich in natural resources and there was a large internal market for products. Transportation and communication were two major obstacles for America. Railways and the invention of Morse code eventually overcame problems in transportation and communication.

Industrialisation in Britain and France

At the time of the British Industrial Revolution, America was a colony of Britain. The American government wanted independence from Britain. The American people believed that independence could only be achieved if America was economically strong.

Industrialization in other countries: Russia – HISTORY …

Industrialisation in each country had different social results. For Germany, economic power encouraged imperialist ambitions in the government, eventually leading to war. For Russia, social and economic inequalities led to social revolution.

A comparison/contrast of the industrialisation in Germany ..

In the late 19th century, European engineers, scientists and experts were invited to Russia to oversee industrial development. An increase in the production of coal in the Ukraine and oil in the Caucasus promoted massive economic growth. Iron, chemical, engineering, petroleum and steel industries were established within ten years.