Kant: Critique of Pure Reason (Summary) - the …

Kant's notion that reason connects us directly to things-in-themselves does not allow for speculative metaphysics as practiced by the Rationalists because reason alone does not determine any positive content of knowledge ("Thoughts without content are empty; intuitions without concepts are blind," A 51).

That Kant's theory is one of empirical realism is difficult to understand and easily forgotten.

If he was not busy at meals, he ate in the inn at a table sought out by a number of cultured people." Kant gave himself to this mode of life in such an easy and relaxed way that even the most meticulous psychological observer among his intimates was occasionally puzzled about him; in 1764 [Johann Georg] Hamann says that Kant carries in his head a host of greater and lesser works, which he however probably will never finish in the "whirl of social distraction" in which he is now tossed.

Kant: The Ethics Of Duty And Reason

That book's publication in 1781 put Kant, at age 57, on the doorstep of a vast philosophical project, whose details he had already planned, but whose completion his age and health -- he was never a very robust man -- might well frustrate.

Kant, Immanuel | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

While recognizing the ontological dualism, Freeman Dyson now says () that "the way they fit together is not yet completely understood...," without acknowledging that just such a dualism, conformable to quantum mechanics, already exists in Kant's phenomenalism.

Immanuel Kant (/ k æ n t /; German: ..

To see how Kant attempts to achieve this goal in the Critique, ithelps to reflect on his grounds for rejecting the Platonism of theInaugural Dissertation. In a way the Inaugural Dissertation also triesto reconcile Newtonian science with traditional morality and religion,but its strategy is different from that of the Critique. According tothe Inaugural Dissertation, Newtonian science is true of the sensibleworld, to which sensibility gives us access; and the understandinggrasps principles of divine and moral perfection in a distinctintelligible world, which are paradigms for measuring everything in thesensible world. So on this view our knowledge of the intelligible worldis a priori because it does not depend on sensibility, and this apriori knowledge furnishes principles for judging the sensible worldbecause in some way the sensible world itself conforms to or imitatesthe intelligible world.

Immanuel Kant Quotes - BrainyQuote

Here Kant entertains doubts about how a priori knowledge of anintelligible world would be possible. The position of the InauguralDissertation is that the intelligible world is independent of the humanunderstanding and of the sensible world, both of which (in differentways) conform to the intelligible world. But, leaving aside questionsabout what it means for the sensible world to conform to anintelligible world, how is it possible for the human understanding toconform to or grasp an intelligible world? If the intelligible world isindependent of our understanding, then it seems that we could grasp itonly if we are passively affected by it in some way. But for Kantsensibility is our passive or receptive capacity to be affected byobjects that are independent of us (2:392, A51/B75). So the only way wecould grasp an intelligible world that is independent of us is throughsensibility, which means that our knowledge of it could not be apriori. The pure understanding alone could at best enable us to formrepresentations of an intelligible world. But since these intellectualrepresentations would entirely “depend on our inner activity,” as Kantsays to Herz, we have no good reason to believe that they conform to anindependent intelligible world. Such a priori intellectualrepresentations could well be figments of the brain that do notcorrespond to anything independent of the human mind. In any case, itis completely mysterious how there might come to be a correspondencebetween purely intellectual representations and an independentintelligible world.

What is the distinction between public and private ..

The Critique of Pure Reason is Kant's response to this crisis. Its maintopic is metaphysics because, for Kant, metaphysics is the domain ofreason – it is “the inventory of all we possess through purereason, ordered systematically” (Axx) — and the authority ofreason was in question. Kant's main goal is to show that a critique ofreason by reason itself, unaided and unrestrained by traditionalauthorities, establishes a secure and consistent basis for bothNewtonian science and traditional morality and religion. In otherwords, free rational inquiry adequately supports all of these essentialhuman interests and shows them to be mutually consistent. So reasondeserves the sovereignty attributed to it by the Enlightenment.