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19. Koinonia encompasses all Christians and the salvation of all who share in the gospel. Koinonia ecclesiology has many aspects but no uniform definition. The New Testament references to koinonia do not directly relate the term to "church," let alone to "ministries," but repeatedly deal with all the faithful. In presenting the church as koinonia, the Lutheran-Roman Catholic International Commission placed the church within a series of biblical images, beginning with "people of God," and added that in both our traditions "we rightly speak of the 'priesthood of all the baptized' or the 'priesthood of all believers.'"32 All structures and ministries, as instruments of koinonia, serve God's people. Whatever is said, then, of "koinonia ecclesiology" and "ministry in service of community" is to be embedded in this context: the people of God, all Christian believers.

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The denial of the existence of universal moral principles in therelations among states brings Hobbes close to the Machiavellians andthe followers of the doctrine of raison d’état.His theory of international relations, which assumes that independentstates, like independent individuals, are enemies by nature, asocialand selfish, and that there is no moral limitation on their behavior,is a great challenge to the idealist political vision based on humansociability and to the concept of the international jurisprudence thatis built on this vision. However, what separates Hobbes fromMachiavelli and associates him more with classical realism is hisinsistence on the defensive character of foreign policy. His politicaltheory does not put forward the invitation to do whatever may beadvantageous for the state. His approach to international relations isprudential and pacific: sovereign states, like individuals, should bedisposed towards peace which is commended by reason.


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24. In continuity with one aspect of the early church, Roman Catholics define the local church (or, more often, the particular church or diocese) as "a portion of the people of God whose pastoral care is entrusted to a bishop in conjunction with his priests. Thus, in conjunction with their pastor and gathered by him into one flock in the Holy Spirit through the gospel and the eucharist, they constitute a particular church."36 The basic unit of the church is therefore defined both eucharistically and ministerially. The ministry of the bishop is a constitutive element of the most basic ecclesiastical unit, the diocese, which includes all that is necessary to be a church. The link between the parish eucharist and the bishop is not obvious to most Roman Catholics, however, since they only occasionally experience a eucharistic assembly with their bishop presiding, even though they mention the bishop by name in every eucharistic liturgy the parish celebrates.


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13. The koinonia of salvation has called forth a type of community, the church, appropriate to the grace and calling we have received. We are a koinonia called in Christ by and for the gospel (1 Cor. 1:9; Phil. 1:5), a community that comes from the Holy Spirit (2 Cor. 13:13). The vertical and horizontal fellowship with God and fellow believers (1 John 1:2-7) results in a people conformed to Christ's death on the cross (Phil. 3:10, cross and resurrection of Jesus; 1 Pet. 4:13, suffering and rejoicing). That means for the justified an existence determined by God's love and faithfulness, a life lived with love, in faith and trust, marked by hope. This vertical and horizontal fellowship exists in and with the world and its institutions. It is shaped internally by its relationship with God through Christ and the Spirit and by the participation in Christ and salvation of all members of Christ's body. Externally the church relates to the world, not merely as a social institution, amid the other public structures (ta koina) of the Greco-Roman world,13 but more importantly as a sign of God's will that all share in salvation. Divisions in fellowship blunt the impact of our witness to salvation.

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52. For most of its history, Lutheranism had no worldwide structural realization. A growing sense of a need for international Lutheran solidarity led first to the gathering of individual Lutherans in the Lutheran World Convention (1923) and later to the organization of Lutheran churches in the Lutheran World Federation (1947). As noted earlier, the LWF does not define itself as a church, but as "a communion of churches which confess the triune God, agree in the proclamation of the Word of God and are united in pulpit and altar fellowship."72 As a communion of churches, the LWF acts on behalf of its member churches in areas of common interest such as ecumenical relations, theology, humanitarian assistance, human rights, communication, and various aspects of mission and development,73 but does not perform the full range of ecclesial actions, does not have the authority of a church, and is not structured as a church. The LWF is headed by a President and a General Secretary who are not understood as pastors of world Lutheranism. The LWF has, however, exercised what amounts to discipline in relation to its German-language churches in Southern Africa during the apartheid era, and was the organ by which a consensus of its member churches was formed around the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. The LWF is a realization of the koinonia of salvation, even if not in itself church.

Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The realist response came most prominently from Kenneth N. Waltz,who reformulated realism in international relations in a new anddistinctive way. In his book Theory of International Politics,first published in 1979, he responded to the liberal challenge andattempted to cure the defects of the classical realism of HansMorgenthau with his more scientific approach, which has became known asstructural realism or neorealism. Whereas Morgenthau rooted his theoryin the struggle for power, which he related to human nature, Waltz madean effort to avoid any philosophical discussion of human nature, andset out instead to build a theory of international politics analogousto microeconomics. He argues that states in the international systemare like firms in a domestic economy and have the same fundamentalinterest: to survive. “Internationally, the environment ofstates’ actions, or the structure of their system, is set by thefact that some states prefer survival over other ends obtainable in theshort run and act with relative efficiency to achieve that end”(93).