British armor swept forward in the tradition of the Desert Rats. Like the U.S. Abrams M1-A1 tank, the 221 British Challenger tanks sent to Saudi Arabia were not regarded with great confidence. They had finished last in the prestigious Canadian Army Trophy tank competition held in West Germany in 1987 against tanks and crews from all over NATO. But, by the end of the three day offensive, Challengers accounted for some 200 Iraqi tanks destroyed or captured along with numerous armored and soft vehicles. One Challenger took out an Iraqi tank over a range of 5,100m (3 miles) with a Depleted Uranium round the longest confirmed tank kill in history!
Although this image has nothing to do with PSYOP; since we showed the deceptive Iraqi sand map above, I thought it might be interesting to show a true intelligence sand map prepared by B/3-7 Infantry, 24th U.S. Army Infantry Division. It was used to brief the entire company on the route to their objective once the ground war started during Operation Desert Storm.
“Hidden Wars of Desert Storm” : Indybay
A quick word about the cost of the war. Desert Shield/Storm was a bad precedent for the because it was one of those very rare cases when other nations paid the vast bulk of the costs. The got most of its oil from so had no great reason to rush to the defense of . However, both and did use Kuwaiti oil, and many of the Arab nations were willing to pay to help free itself from the Iraqi yoke. I recall at the time that there was a joke that if the Army built a security fence in the bill would be sent to . It was a joke, but there was the germ of truth in it. As a result, future wars (like Iraqi Freedom) would be fought by a with the belief that much of the cost would be picked up by oil sales and other nations. This turned out to be a futile hope. In the case of the first Persian Gulf War, the cost was 61.1 billion dollars and 53.7 billion were paid by (16.8), (16.1), (10.0), (6.6), United Arab Emirates (4.1), and other nations (0.4). As a percent of Gross Domestic Product (0.3%), Desert Storm was the cheapest war fought in U.S. history. The greater cost of the war to the region was likely more than $676 billion.
Hidden under black netting in the remote Mexican desert..
The chits were serial numbered at the four corners. I seem to remember (though it is hazy) that the amount of reward for an entire chit was $100,000, and if the pilot was helped by more than one person the numbers could be cut off the chit and were worth $25,000 each. There are dozens of blood chits on the market from both wartime and peacetime flights over enemy territory. The genuine blood chit is easy to identify because printed at the bottom in very small letters is "BLDCHTXXIA (Desert Shield)."
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Staff Sergeant Larry D. McGarrah of the 362nd PSYOP Company (USAR), attached to the 1st Armored Division, led a three-man Loudspeaker team during Desert Storm. A Kuwaiti linguist named Mohammad was assigned to the team. Mohammad was a Lieutenant in the Kuwaiti Army who had escaped after the Iraqi invasion. After the ceasefire the team patrolled the area between Basra and the Kuwaiti border broadcasting that the war was over. The team leader said in part: