Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Infants or Children

Reciprocal facial signalling, mutual rhythmic entrainment, and dyadic resonance thus act as a psychobiological context for an open channel of social communication, and this interactive matrix promotes the outward expression of internal affective states in infants. Sander (1997) asserts that the parent expresses a behavior that is particularly fitted to catalyze a shift in the infantis state, and Tronick et al. (1998) state that the complexity of the infantis state is expandable with input from an external source - the caregiver. In order to enter into this communication, the mother must be psychobiologically attuned not so much to the child's overt behavior as to the reflections of the rhythms of his internal state.

Single parents are raising a significantly larger proportion of children....

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Kids with GAD experience frequent worry about any number of different topics. They may worry about something that could happen in the future (e.g. a test or dentist appointment) or something that happened in the past (e.g. doing something embarrassing, doing poorly on a homework assignment). Common worries include school performance, mistakes they have made in the past, personal health or the health of loved ones, family finances, or things going on in the world at large (e.g. war, natural disasters, etc.). Kids suffering with GAD may persistently seek reassurance from parents and other adults, and may have particular difficulties tolerating uncertainty.


Free Single Parent Essays and Papers

There are many effects having children outside of marriage and becoming a single-parent family.

Contact is a significant part of working or caring for children and young
people who are unable to live with their parents.


relationships with significant others and promoting a child or young
person's understanding of their identity.



This course looks at the legislation and policy supporting this process, and information to help aid you in your role.

Case scenarios will be presented that demonstrate the importance and complexity of contact.


In genetics, symbols began as algebraic placeholders

Figure 2a shows that, holding constant all demographic measures other than income, an increase of one standard deviation in the single-parent measure is associated with a drop in children’s completed schooling of one-quarter of a year. Similar results are obtained for changes in maternal age at birth and number of siblings. In contrast, an equivalent change in the amount of maternal schooling adds about three-quarters of a year to children’s completed schooling. Including the income variable in the model all but eliminates the estimated relationship between single-parent family structure and educational attainment, suggesting that differences in parental income play a key role in the educational disadvantage facing students raised in single-parent families. Adjusting for differences in parental income makes little difference for the other key variables.

Trauma Information Pages, Articles: Allan Schore (2001a)

While these findings may seem to call into question the importance of family structure on its own for predicting children’s educational attainment, two qualifications are in order. First, recall that Figure 2 shows the change in completed schooling associated with a change of one standard deviation in each of the relevant predictors. For the single-parent family variable, this amounts to an increase of 1.2 years in the amount of time children spent living with one parent between the ages of 14 and 16. The vast majority of children in our sample, however, spent either none of those years or all three of those years in a single-parent family. Spending all three years in a single-parent family, as opposed to none, was associated with completing 0.63 fewer years of schooling and a reduction of 13 percentage points in the probability of graduating from college in models that do not control for family income.

Understanding Oppositional Children - ASCD

In this process of "contingent responsivity," not only the tempo of their engagement but also their disengagement and reengagement is coordinated. The more the psychobiologically attuned mother tunes her activity level to the infant during periods of social engagement, the more she allows him to recover quietly in periods of disengagement, and the more she attends to the childis reinitiating cues for reengagement, the more synchronized their interaction. The period immediately after a "moment of meeting," when both partners disengage, provides "open space," in which both can be together, yet alone (autoregulating) in the presence of the other (Sander, 1988). The synchronizing caregiver thus facilitates the infant's information processing by adjusting the mode, amount, variability, and timing of the onset and offset of stimulation to the infant's actual integrative capacities. These mutually attuned synchronized interactions are fundamental to the healthy affective development of the infant (Penman, Meares, & Milgrom-Friedman, 1983).