The Future Of America's Working Class | …

The gains of the Industrial Revolution in England from 1780 to 1850 were not worth the pain that was caused by it, which primarily affected the working class of England.

The working class experienced harsh working and living conditions during the Industrial Revolution.

Many Maryland immigrants left their families in England.Because of the conditions existing in the New World (availability of land, a host of immigrant groups, a disproportional number of men and women and plenty of opportunity, etc.) the end of the eighteenth century saw many changes take place in the American family.


Economic Nationalism and the Half-Life of Deindustrialization

The working class of England was exploited by the higher classes of society.

Theoretical and empirical debates about the relation of women to classand work, and the implications of these relations for theories of maledomination and women’s oppression as well as for other systemsof social domination, continue to be important sources of theories andinvestigations of gender identities, roles and powers in the field ofwomen and gender studies, as well as in history, sociology,anthropology and economics. They also have important implications forepistemology, metaphysics and political theory in the discipline ofphilosophy, and consequently other disciplines in humanities and thesocial sciences.


The Class of 2015: Despite an Improving Economy, …

Wool had been the chief article of export for England since the thirteenthcentury, but by 1500 a shift had occurred. For a long time it had been raw woolthat the English sent abroad to be processed into woolen cloth in foreigncountries. However, the native English woolen manufacturing industry had beendeveloped to the point where it was now woolen cloth that constituted England'schief export. All woolen cloth going to the Continent passed through Antwerp,which was, therefore, the staple port for this product. It was handled by theMerchant Adventurers, a group of wealthy merchants from various cities in thekingdom, especially London. For the raw wool England still exported, the stapleport was Calais still in English possession in 1500 and it was handled by theorganization known as the Merchants of the Staple. For high grade wool, England'schief competition was Spain, where the mesta, as we have seen, dominated therural economy. The prosperity of the Spanish sheep-growers was based on the woolof the Merino sheep, which had first been imported into Spain from North Africaabout 1300. Wool was one of the chief articles of trade and manufacturethroughout western Europe. The Florentine economy, as previously noted, waslargely based on it; and the textile manufactures of the Low Countries continuedto be important. Sometimes the names of familiar articles of use can remind us ofthe places that originally specialized in such articles. For instance the city ofGhent (in French Gand) made and exported gloves, and our word gauntlet preservesthis connection.

American Economic Association: JEL Codes

Marxism as a philosophy of human nature stresses the centrality ofwork in the creation of human nature itself and humanself-understanding (see the entry on Marxism). Both the changing historical relations between human work and nature,and the relations of humans to each other in the production anddistribution of goods to meet material needs construct human naturedifferently in different historical periods: nomadic humans aredifferent than agrarian or industrial humans. Marxism as a philosophyof history and social change highlights the social relations of workin different economic modes of production in its analysis of socialinequalities and exploitation, including relations of domination suchas racism and sexism. (Marx 1844, 1950, 1906–9; Marx and Engels 1848,1850; Engels 1942). Within capitalism, the system they most analyzed,the logic of profit drives the bourgeois class into developing theproductive forces of land, labor and capital by expanding markets,turning land into a commodity and forcing the working classes fromfeudal and independent agrarian production into wage labor. Marx andEngels argue that turning all labor into a commodity to be bought andsold not only alienates workers by taking the power of production awayfrom them, it also collectivizes workers into factories and massassembly lines. This provides the opportunity for workers to uniteagainst the capitalists and to demand the collectivization ofproperty, i.e., socialism, or communism.