At any point each of us is in a state of mind where we think, feel, behave, react and have attitudes as if we were either Critical or Caring Parent, a Logical Adult or a Spontaneous or Dependent Child. Many general practice consultations are conducted between a Parental doctor and a Child-like patient. This interaction is not always in the best interests of either party. Communication may break down when replies do not match the initial offer. Many transactions are predictable and are described as "games". Transactional Analysis teaches doctors to break out of these repetitious and degenerative cycles of behaviour.
A practical approach to Critical Theory responds to pluralism in thesocial sciences in two ways, once again embracing and reconciling bothsides of the traditional opposition between epistemic (explanatory) andnon-epistemic (interpretive) approaches to normative claims. On the onehand, it affirms the need for general theories, while weakening thestrong epistemic claims made for them in underwriting criticism. On theother hand, it situates the critical inquirer in the pragmaticsituation of communication, seeing the critic as making a strong claimfor the truth or rightness of his critical analysis. This is apresupposition of the critic's discourse, without which it would makeno sense to engage in criticism of others.
International Relations Theory: A Critical Introduction …
This shift to “perspective taking” is already implicit in thereflexivity of practical forms of Critical Theory. Rather than look forthe universal and necessary features of social scientific knowledge,Critical Theory has instead focused on the social relationships betweeninquirers and other actors in the social sciences. Such relationshipscan be specified epistemically in terms of the perspective taken by theinquirer on the actors who figure in their explanations orinterpretations. Seen in this way, the two dominant and opposedapproaches to social science adopt quite different perspectives. On theone hand, naturalism gives priority to the third-person or explanatoryperspective; on the other hand, the anti-reductionism of interpretivesocial science argues for the priority of first- and second-personunderstanding and so for an essential methodological dualism. CriticalTheory since Horkheimer has long attempted to offer an alternative toboth views.
Frankfurt School and Critical Theory | Internet …
The philosophical problem that emerges in critical social inquiry isto identify precisely those features of its theories, methods, andnorms that are sufficient to underwrite social criticism. A closerexamination of paradigmatic works across the whole tradition fromMarx's Capital (1871) to the Frankfurt School's Studies inAuthority and the Family (1939) and Habermas's Theory ofCommunicative Action (1982) reveals neither some distinctive formof explanation nor a special methodology that provides the necessaryand sufficient conditions for such inquiry. Rather, the best such worksemploy a variety of methods and styles of explanation and are ofteninterdisciplinary in their mode of research. What then gives them theircommon orientation and makes them all works of critical socialscience?
The Frankfurt School and Critical Theory
Deetz scrutinizes the structure of the corporate world. His theory of communication is 'critical' because he questions the primacy of corporate prosperity.
Introduction to Modern Literary Theory - Homepage - …
R. Kahn and D. Kellner, 2005. Oppositional politics and the Internet: A critical/reconstructive approach. Cultural Politics, volume 1, number 1, pp. 75100.