Comparing Fingerprints: What's The Point? - Lee Lofland

Why Paper Dictionary?
- E dictionary gives meaning in isolation, while paper dictionary provides linguistic, phonetic and communicative information
- Although E dictionaries are easy to carry and speedy, they may cause more problems
- Paper dictionaries can give clear meanings, synonyms, and antonyms
- Paper dictionaries give meanings that E dictionaries don't offer.
- Sometimes the meaning and pronunciation are incorrect in the E dictionaries.
- Paper dictionary helps improving students spelling and pronunciation.
- E dictionaries don't provide examples.
- Paper dictionaries give a lot of information about a word. e.g. part of speech, different uses and different meanings, grammatical information, cross references with other words.
- The act of handling a book is an academic experience while E dictionary is more like a play station.
- Paper dictionaries have other sections like recent coinage, abbreviations, idioms…
- Paper dictionaries are regularly updated.
- The teacher can't really tell if a student is looking for a word or messaging a friend while using E dictionary.
- Paper dictionaries are designed for language learners.
- E dictionaries mislead students and give word to word translation in an odd way.
- Paper dictionaries give students a chance to learn other words while looking for a particular word.
- E dictionaries make students produce a full of errors language, e.g. writing.
- E dictionaries make students focus on individual words rather than the gist.
- E dictionaries can be noisy.
- E dictionaries are not suitable for test purposes,,, cheating
- Paper dictionary familiarizes students with the alphabet.
- The accuracy of pronunciation depends on the battery, low battery... distorted pronunciation.
- E dictionaries are produced by companies which are not academic in nature.
- Students can learn a lot of vocabulary from paper dictionary.
- Because it takes students time to look up a word from a paper dictionary it stays in their heads longer.
- To students E dictionaries are a mark of financial distinction not an academic status.
- Teachers can use paper dictionaries for exercises e.g. Comparisons, and discuss the entry with the students.
- Paper dictionaries are more affordable.
- Students need to practice using paper dictionaries cause they will need to use them for exams.
- Students use E dictionaries to check the Arabic translation of the words and end up using the wrong word.
- Students get the tendency of selecting the first word that appears on the screen which in many cases is wrong.
- E dictionaries sometimes provide words that are never used naturally.
- Paper dictionaries provide additional practice for students.
- An electronic dictionary doesn't help students in deciding which of a possible choice of words is correct.

Comparing the Use of Print Media and Electronic Media During Election Campaigns PAGES 1

Dictionary Formats
Dictionaries could take different formats depending on the purpose of their required usage. The following formats show these different available main types:
Printed dictionaries
Printed dictionaries vary from tiny pocket-sized versions that could be affordable and easy to carry, to large wide-ranging multi-volume works.
Handheld Electronic dictionaries
Electronic dictionaries are small devices that receive input through a little keyboard, voice recognition or a scanning device that reads printed text, and shows the translation on a small LCD screen or speaks the translation by voice telling the accurate pronunciation.
Dictionary programs
These are Computer software that allocates words or phrases to be entered and translated on a computer monitor.
Online dictionaries
Online dictionaries are similar to dictionary programs, these are often uncomplicated to search, but not always complimentary to use, and in some cases they are not as credible as the printed types of dictionaries.
Visual dictionaries
A visual dictionary is a printed dictionary that depends chiefly on illustrations to provide the user with a reliable way of identifying the correct translation. Visual dictionaries are often multi-lingual rather than bilingual-- they often cover four or more languages instead of containing translations between two languages only.

Science Center Activities - Lychee & Plum

print and electronic media