The Collective Bargaining Process

Educational attainment. The reduced earnings and labor force participation associated with teacher collective bargaining raise the possibility that affected students may have completed less education. Our analysis, however, finds little evidence of bargaining power having a significant effect on how much schooling students completed. This finding is surprising in light of the substantial labor-market effects we document, but it comports with prior research that has found no effect of duty-to-bargain law passage on high-school dropout rates.

How Might Collective Bargaining Affect Schools and Students?

Critics of teacher unionization argue that collective bargaining in public education has reduced school quality by shifting resources toward teachers and away from other educational inputs and by making it more difficult to fire low-performing teachers. Stronger unions may also have made it harder for states to adopt policies aimed at improving school quality through enhanced accountability or expanded school choice.


Collective Bargaining Agreements | APWU

What is collective bargaining?

The Maine Labor Relations Board administersand enforces the state's laws that govern collective bargaining for public sector employees and employers. This includes Maine's cities and towns, school districts, water and sewer districts, the University and Community College Systems, Maine Maritime Academy, and all three branches of Maine's state government. The Panel of Mediators and the Board of Arbitration and Conciliation are assigned as needed to help the parties resolve contract negotiations disputes and contract grievances.


Collective bargaining (Section 8(d) & 8(b)(3)) | NLRB

When making these comparisons, we adjust for the share of the student’s state birth cohort that is black, Hispanic, and white, and the share that is male. We also take into account two policy changes enacted by many states during this same time period that may have affected student outcomes: school finance reforms and changes in the generosity of state earned-income tax credits. If the rollout of those policies coincided with the passage of duty-to-bargain laws, unadjusted before-and-after comparisons could yield misleading results. Adjusting for these two variables turns out to make little difference in our results but strengthens our confidence that collective bargaining is responsible for the effects we document.

UAW President Denies Collective Bargaining Deals …

We do not directly compare students educated in duty-to-bargain states with students in non-DTB states, because such comparisons would clearly yield outcome differences unrelated to collective bargaining (for instance, differences caused by higher or lower poverty rates). Also, we eschew simple “before and after” comparisons within a state, because again, any observed outcome differences could be the result of factors other than collective bargaining (for instance, social and political changes since the 1960s that affected K–12 education). Our strategy, therefore, is to compare the differences in outcomes for students educated in the same state (before and after the DTB law passed) to the differences in outcomes for students in non-DTB states over the same time period.

What are the types of Collective Bargaining? Business …

Our measure of the extent to which each student is exposed to collective bargaining varies from 0 to 1 and is defined as the proportion of the student’s school years in which a duty-to-bargain law was in effect in his or her state. A value of 1 means that a DTB law had been enacted by the time students in the birth cohort were six years old (in time for first grade); thus, they were exposed to the law throughout their entire K–12 education. The variable is 0 for students whose birth cohorts had no exposure, either because they were over 18 when a DTB law was passed or because they were born in a state that did not impose a duty to bargain.