Further east, Muslims complain of the Indian army's brutality towards them in Kashmir, and of Indian Hindu's destruction of the Ayodhya mosque in 1992. Islam, as Samuel Huntington has put it, has bloody borders (Huntington, 1993). It was Huntington who recently provided the intellectual framework to pay more attention to the coming clash of civilizations. Civilizations are differentiated from each other by history, language, culture, tradition and, most importantly, religion.
He expects more conflicts along the cultural-religious fault lines because (1) those differences have always generated the most prolonged and the most violent conflicts; (2) because the world is becoming a smaller place, and the increasing interactions will intensify the civilization- consciousness of the people which in turn invigorates differences and animosities stretching or thought to stretch back deep in history; (3) because of the weakening of the nation-state as a source of identity and the desecularisation of the world with the revival of religion as basis of identity and commitment that transcends national boundaries and unites civilizations; (4) because of the dual role of the West. On the one hand, the West is at the peak of its power. At the same time, it is confronted with an increasing desire by elites in other parts of the world to shape the world in non-Western ways; (5) because cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones; (6) finally, because increasing economic regionalism will reinforce civilization-consciousness.
Of course there are no ' pure ' religious conflicts. It is the correlation with other integrating or disintegrating pressures which will determine the dynamics of a conflict. There is a need for a more sophisticated typology.
For each conflict in which religion is involved, a cross-impact analysis is necessary of at least six variables which together could reinforce a constructive or a destructive conflict dynamic (See the Figure 1).
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Most of these experts always make a point of pointing out how diverse, but, very different cultures are there amongst the indigenous South African African people.
Clashing culltural values and diversity Neo-Platonism
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It is very important to keep in mind that a culture is to a significant extent a historical product, a social product; a culture is socially manufactured, the handiwork of both deliberate and coincidental human social collusions and interactions A culture also manufactures social products, and some of the most important social products it generates include its own cultural identity, and the social and personal identities of its constituent group and individual members." Africans must confidently build and recreate their own culture from the remnants of the culture that they have today.
CROSS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND THEIR …
Thus, there is an important continuity between the nature of power,its quantity, quality and organization within the family and the nature of social and power relations between the family and its physical and social environment including other families and institutions which together constitute a larger social system such as a clan, nation or culture."
Hence, the effective nature of power generated and exercised by a culture is intimately and reciprocally related to and dependent on the effective nature of the power generated by its family and other subcultural uits.
The values and attitudes found at the national level ..
When I talk about culutre, I am not just talking about something in the abstract that is imposed on man ad is separate from him, but about man himself, about you and me in a highly personal way."
Culture And Its Social Origins and Power
It is at this point that I use the definition of Culture and power as explained by Wilson in this way:
"One of the most important contexts in which the alignment of individuals and groups is utilized to generate and exercise social power is that of culture .