The Bourbon Spanish Empire (1713-1806)

The Habsburg dynasty squandered the American and Castilian riches in pointless wars across Europe, defaulted on their debt several times, and left the Spanish people generally bankrupt. His political goals were several:

Persian Empire | ancientcivilisationsblog

The Roman empire and its impact on Christianity and its beliefs were enormous. Rome carried out ten waves of persecution against Christians, the first of these began by Emperor Nero in 67 A.D. He instigated the torture and death of believers, many times as sport in the Circus Maximus, in order to deflect criticism of himself. During this first purge, the apostles Paul and Peter died a martyr's death. The tenth and last of these persecutions began under Diocletian (284 to 305 A.D.). All during this period, in spite of the concentrated efforts to stamp out God's truth through the martyrdom of countless saints, believers in the Bible continued to multiple. The persecutions by the state finally ended in 313 A.D. when Constantine, in his Edict of Milan, legalized Christianity and ended the violence.


Crib Notes: Empire Games - Charlie's Diary - Antipope

[[10]]For a listing of the sources that comment on Constans as an emperor, see DiMaio, , 279, nn1-4.

The East was taxed heavily, and themoney transferred to the West, which used the money to purchase goods from theEast. The Romans established a strict policy of religious toleration.
They themselves freely adopted and adapted the gods and goddesses of the peoplethey conquered, a process called
They promoted a certain degree of commonality by establishing and promotingemperor worship, which acted much the same as patriotic rituals -- saluting theflag, the formulaic pledge of allegiance, standing when singing the nationalanthem, reverence for the cloth of the flag -- are intended to promote feelingson national unity among citizens. (Roman peace): The Romans brought an unprecedented degree ofpeace and security to the lands of their empire, and their citizens andsubjects fully appreciated that these blessings were dependent on the continuedunity of the empire.
(the sense of being roman) was a deeply-held sentiment andoutlived the empire itself by a matter of centuries. But such institutions required attention and constant effort to maintain.


The Roman Empire / Useful Notes - TV Tropes

The Arras agreement required all Spanish troops to leave these lands. In 1580, this gave King Philip the opportunity to strengthen his position when the last member of the Portuguese royal family, Cardinal Henry of Portugal, died. Philip asserted a weak claim to the Portuguese throne and in June sent the Duke of Alba with an army to Lisbon to assure his succession. Though the Duke of Alba and the Spanish occupation, however, was little more popular in Lisbon than in Rotterdam, the combined Spanish and Portuguese empires placed into Philip's hands almost the entirety of the explored New World along with a vast trading empire in Africa and Asia. In 1582, when Philip II moved his court back to Madrid from the Atlantic port of Lisbon where he had temporarily settled to pacify his new Portuguese kingdom, the pattern was sealed, in spite of what every observant commentator privately noted: "Sea power is more important to the ruler of Spain than any other prince" wrote a commentator, "for it is only by sea power that a single community can be created out of so many so far apart." A writer on tactics in 1638 observed, "The might most suited to the arms of Spain is that which is placed on the seas, but this matter of state is so well known that I should not discuss it, even if I thought it opportune to do so." (quoted by Braudel 1984)

The Roman Empire succeeded The Roman Republic in the first century BC

If needed, theRoman armies could fight the enemies of Rome but, in many cases, it provedsimpler and more effective to win them over and enlist them as allies ofthe Roman state.Wherever it was sent or wherever it was settled, the Roman army providedlocal inhabitants an outstanding example of , the sense ofbelonging to a great civilization The Romans established Latin as the common and official language of the empire,but also adopted Greek culture and, in a form called ,spread a common literature, architecture, art, etc., throughout the empire. An economic balance was maintained between the wealthy and productive East andthe relatively poor and backward West.

The precise starting date is a …

Theiryear was marked off by great rituals in which they honored , a goddess who was the exemplification of Rome, as well as for the peace of the imperial family, its security, the loyalty that bound the army to the service of the emperor, and so onIndeed, in times when Rome itself fell in disorder or when the imperialadministration had fallen into the depths of corruption orineffectiveness, the army's reverence for the ideal of Rome remainedundiminished even though they might acclaim their general as emperor andmarch upon Rome to clear up the mess there.