49 Summary of Catholic History , p. 177.

Another step towards the precipice of Reformation was taken in 1414 when the 16th Ecumenical Council in the history of the Catholic Church was convoked at Constance, a city on the shores of the Boden Sea in southern Germany. 32

Sproul, founder and chairman of Ligonier Ministries, served as this studyBible's general editor.

In Spain, the Church was strong and the state was run by powerful Catholic leaders — Charles V and Philip II. Through their efforts and through the workings of an effective Inquisition, the revolution never became a factor.


65 Summary of Catholic History , p. 154.

31  “William of Ockham”, The Catholic Encyclopedia , Vol. XV, Fr. William Turner, p. 636.

Like Lutheranism, the Calvinist doctrine practically identified Church and State as one entity; however, unlike the Lutherans, the Calvinists advocated the Church’s dominance over the State, i.e. a theocracy, where one entity governed things both spiritual and temporal. Some historians mistakenly point out that this arrangement is what the Catholic Church teaches. They seem to forget that the Roman Church recognizes two distinct bodies endowed with authority, and not a single organization.


Catholicism - Bible Study Lessons

And so the amazing Holy Father found time to perfect the chant of the Church and to train his school of chanters. And when his lessons were forgotten over the ages, and the incongruity of operatic music had long plagued and distracted the faithful during Mass, a Pope after Saint Gregory’s own heart, Pope Saint Pius X, would have but to turn back from the twentieth century to the sixth, to find the inspiration and confirmation for his Motu Proprio on sacred music. And both Gregorian chant and the schola cantorum would become part of the education, once again, of Catholic children.

Catholic Home Schooling - Seton Home Study School

In 1521 Zurich, the city council protected Zwingli from Church authorities and allowed him to preach his poison to the populace. By 1525, after the city council had given their official approval to Zwingli, all external signs of Catholicity were destroyed. The Mass had been replaced with a “purer form of worship — the altar disappeared, some plain tables, covered with the sacramental bread and wine, occupied their places, and a crowd of eager communicants was gathered around them.” 71

Evangelicals who do not study church history are …

The beloved Saint Ildefonsus of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo — who defended the perpetual virginity of the Blessed Virgin Mary against the Helvidians, and to whom Our Blessed Lady appeared and gave a chasuble — said of Pope Saint Gregory the Great that “he excelled Anthony in holiness, and Augustine in knowledge.” The Anthony to whom Saint Ildefonsus refers is, of course, Saint Anthony of the Desert, for Saint Anthony of Padua would not be born for almost another six hundred years. Saint Ildefonsus himself was not born until three years after Saint Gregory’s death, but he knew and loved Pope Gregory through Saint Isidore of Seville, his teacher, and he had made a careful and loving study of his life and writings.

A Study of Catholic Practice and Doctrine

The strong-willed, unscrupulous ruler of Denmark, King Christian II, who was imbued with the same spirit that motivated his fellow “Catholic” princes, began an assault on the Church’s rights in 1519. Over the next four years he introduced five clerics into the primatial see, only one of whom received papal confirmation, and he promulgated new edicts regulating clerical property and subjecting episcopal jurisdiction on the crown. Along with his meddling into Church affairs, Christian II worked to realize his absolutist ideas in the realm of politics. This he attempted to accomplish by resolving to assert his royal supremacy throughout the Kalmar Union. (The countries of Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark were all united under the domination of the Danes by this treaty.) He wanted also to destroy any power the nobles of his own country had. He failed in both endeavors, and thereby caused his expulsion from Denmark in 1523. A war in Sweden against the Kalmar Union was also an effect of Christian’s policies.